India and China have a complex relationship, with various agreements and disagreements over the years. The two countries share a long border, and both are major players in the global economy. In recent years, their relationship has been marked by tensions over border disputes, trade imbalances, and geopolitical rivalries. In this article, we will examine all agreements between India and China, from the early days of their diplomatic relations to the present.
The first major agreement between India and China was the Panchsheel Treaty, signed in 1954. The treaty established five principles of peaceful coexistence that both countries pledged to uphold: mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality, and mutual benefit. The Panchsheel Treaty was seen as a landmark agreement, and it helped to establish India and China as leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement.
In 1962, the two countries went to war over a border dispute in the Himalayas. The resulting conflict lasted for a month and ended with China occupying several disputed territories. In the aftermath of the war, India and China signed the Sino-Indian Agreement on the Establishment of a Line of Actual Control in 1993, which sought to clarify their respective borders and maintain peace along the border regions.
In 1996, India and China signed the Agreement on Confidence-Building Measures in the Military Field, which established mechanisms for communication and consultation between their military forces. This agreement helped to prevent accidental clashes along the border, and it has been praised as an example of successful confidence-building measures between two major powers.
In 2005, India and China signed the Agreement on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the India-China Boundary Question. This agreement outlined a framework for resolving their ongoing border disputes, including the establishment of a Special Representative mechanism to negotiate a final settlement. While progress has been slow, both sides have continued to engage in talks and have made some incremental progress towards resolving their differences.
In recent years, India and China have signed a number of agreements aimed at deepening economic ties and promoting trade. In 2014, the two countries signed the Agreement on Border Defense Cooperation, which established more mechanisms for communication and consultation between their military forces. In 2015, they signed the Agreement on Trade in Services, which aimed to boost trade in services such as information technology, tourism, and healthcare. In 2018, India and China signed an agreement to set up a hotline between their foreign ministers, aimed at improving communication and reducing tensions.
Despite these agreements, tensions between India and China have remained high in recent years. In 2020, the two countries engaged in a deadly border clash that left at least 20 Indian soldiers dead. This incident has led to renewed calls for the two sides to engage in dialogue and resolve their differences peacefully.
In conclusion, the history of relations between India and China has been marked by ups and downs, but both sides have continued to engage in dialogue and sign agreements aimed at promoting peace and cooperation. While progress has been slow in resolving their ongoing border disputes, there is hope that continued engagement and dialogue will lead to a peaceful resolution. The key will be for both sides to remain committed to the principles of peaceful coexistence and mutual benefit that underpin all agreements between India and China.